The evolution of surveying equipment
The evolution of surveying equipment
Surveying is the science that specializes in uploading and signing operations
First the process of raising: it is intended to transfer phenomena from nature to the map, i.e. measuring the dimensions of the different phenomena using different survey equipment, and then I draw them on a paper plate, i.e. the map transferring the phenomena from nature and drawing them on a plate with an appropriate scale.
Second, the signing process: It is the transfer of phenomena from the map to nature, the opposite of the lifting process
It is divided into three main types
First, the land area is divided into a flat area and a geodesic area
Flat area: It is a type of land survey. This type of survey is used in surveys of small areas that are less than 100 milliliters (260 square kilometers). The type of area is spherical, where the Earth is considered flat and therefore this type of area is dealt with. The laws of level trigonometry
In contrast, geodesic space
Geodesic survey is used for this type of survey in large areas surveying operations that exceed 100 square miles (260 square kilometers).
Thus, the laws of the spherical triangle are dealt with
Secondly, marine surveying is a branch of applied science that deals with measuring and describing the natural and physical properties of the navigable parts of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, in addition to studying expected changes over time and researching different ways to represent the surface of the seabed and coastline and what it contains. The bottom is a natural feature, and the main purpose of this is the safety of maritime navigation and support for all other marine activities, including economic development, security, defense, scientific research and environmental protection.
Thirdly, aerial surveying is the science of deriving information from images taken from special cameras that are installed in the inside of aircraft prepared for this purpose. The big one saves time, effort and cost, especially with difficult terrain
Like mountains and deserts.
Surveying equipment that is used in lifting and signing operations. Surveying equipment is being developed for the purpose of saving time, effort and accuracy.
First, the traditional tools are the meter, which is a tape used to measure distances, and the measuring wheel, which is a wheel that contains a counter to measure distances.
Secondly, the equipment
Like a compass, it is a device for measuring deviations, i.e. the angle measured from the north direction and in the clockwise direction down to the side to be measured
The flat plate is used to measure tachymetric distances and to measure horizontal and vertical angles
The flat plate saves time and effort for measuring flat distances more than the meter and the measuring wheel
The scale is used to measure the levels, i.e. how high or low any point is from the mean sea level
The height is used with both the scale and the flat plate in the measurement process
Fourth, digital devices
Like the atodolite: It is used to measure tachymetric distances and to measure horizontal and vertical angles
The integrated weather station is a total station used to digitally measure distances, horizontal and vertical angles, and process them to reach the coordinates of the points and their level.
A GPS device is used to determine the coordinates of any point on the Earth's surface, whether fixed or moving, within 24 hours, using a system of satellites.
Fifthly, aerial photography, which is a plane used to photograph the surface of the earth, and these images are used in the production of map data for this region. Due to the development of surveying equipment, the large plane was replaced by a small plane called Darwin.
All these devices raise the field of natural phenomena such as rivers and lakes, and human phenomena such as buildings and roads
Seventh, it is the stage of managing the data obtained for the phenomena in the GIS through several programs known as GIS programs.